Timeline of Indonesian history

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


  • Pleistocene: The modern geological form of Indonesia appears, linked to Asian mainland.
  • 2 million to 500,000 years ago: Indonesia is inhabited by Homo erectus, now popularly known as the 'Java Man'.[1]
  • 6,000 years ago: The modern peoples of Indonesia of Austronesian origins are thought to have immigrated from mainland South East Asia.
  • 200 BC: Dvipantara or Jawa Dwipa Hindu kingdom is thought to have existed in Java and Sumatra.
  • 700 AD: Wet-field rice cultivation, small towns and kingdoms flourish. Trade links are established with both China and India.
  • 3rd century to 1400s: The Sumatra-based Srivijaya naval kingdom flourishes and declines.
  • 8th century to 832: The agriculturally-based Buddhist Sailendra kingdom flourishes and declines.
  • 752 to 1045: The Hindu Mataram dynasty flourishes and declines.




  • 1400s: Islam becomes Indonesia's dominant religion.
  • 1429: Queen Suhita succeeds Wikramawardhana as ruler of Majapahit.[2]
  • 1447: Wijayaparakramawardhana, succeeds Suhita as ruler of Majapahit.[2]
  • 1451: Rajasawardhana, born Bhre Pamotan, styled Brawijaya II succeeds Wijayaparakramawardhana as ruler of Majapahit.[2]
  • 1453: Reign of Rajasawardhana ends.[2]
  • 1456: Girindrawardhana, styled Brawijaya VI becomes ruler of Majapahit.[2]
  • 1466: Singhawikramawardhana, succeeds Girindrawardhana as ruler of Majapahit.[2]
  • 1478: Reign of Singhawikramawardhana ends.[2]


  • 1509: The Portuguese king sends Diogo Lopes de Sequeira to find Malacca, the eastern terminus of Asian trade. After initially receiving Sequeira, Sultan Mahmud Syah captures and/or kills several of his men and attempts an assault on the four Portuguese ships, which escape.[3] The Javanese fleet is also destroyed in Malacca.
  • 1511, August: Alfonso de Albuquerque after sailing from Portuguese Goa conquers the Sultanate of Malacca with a force of 1,200 and seventeen or eighteen ships.[3]
  • 1512: The first Portuguese exploratory expedition was sent eastward from Malacca to search for the 'Spice Islands' (Maluku) led by Francisco Serrão. Serrao is shipwrecked but struggles on to Hitu (northern Ambon) and wins the favour of the local rulers.[4]
  • 1520: In 1520 the Portuguese established a trading post in the village of Lamakera on the eastern side of Solor as a transit harbour between Maluku and Malacca.
  • 1520: Sultan Ali Mughayat Shah of Aceh begins an expansionist campaign capturing Daya on the west Sumatran coast, and the pepper and gold producing lands on the east coast.
  • 1521, November: Ferdinand Magellan's expedition reaches Maluku and after trade with Ternate returns to Europe with a load of cloves.
  • 1522: The Portuguese ally themselves with the rulers of Ternate and begin construction of a fort.[4]
  • 1535: The Portuguese in Ternate depose King Tabariji (or Tabarija) and send him to Portuguese Goa where he converts to Christianity and bequeaths his Portuguese godfather Jordao de Freitas the island of Ambon.[5]
  • 1546 - 1547: Francis Xavier works among the peoples of Ambon, Ternate and Morotai (Moro) laying the foundations for a permanent mission.
  • 1562: Portuguese Dominican priests build a palm-trunk fortress which Javanese Muslims burned down the following year. The fort was rebuilt from more durable materials and the Dominicans commenced the Christianisation of the local population.[5]
  • 1570: Sultan Hairun of Ternate is killed by the Portuguese.[5]
  • 1575: Following a five-year siege, the Ternateans expel the Portuguese who move to nearby Tidore.[5]
  • 1578: The Portuguese establish a fort on Tidore but the main centre for Portuguese activities in Maluku becomes Ambon.[5]
  • 1579: The British navigator Sir Francis Drake passes through Maluku on his circumnavigation of the world.

The Portuguese establish a fort on Tidore but the main centre for Portuguese activities in Maluku becomes Ambon.[6]

  • 1595: First Dutch expedition to Indonesia sets sail for the East Indies with two hundred and forty-nine men and sixty-four cannons led by Cornelis de Houtman.[7]
  • 1596, June: de Houtman’s expedition reaches Banten the main pepper port of West Java where they clash with both the Portuguese and Indonesians. It then sails east along the north coast of Java losing twelve crew to a Javanese attack at Sidayu and killing a local ruler in Madura.[7]
  • 1597: de Houtman’s expedition returns to the Netherlands with enough spices to make a considerable profit.[7]
  • 1598-1599: The Portuguese require an armada of 90 ships to put down a Solorese uprising.[8]
  • 1598: More Dutch fleets leave for Indonesia and most are profitble.[7]
  • 1599, March: Leaving Europe the previous year, a fleet of twenty-two ships under Jacob van Neck of five different companies was the first Dutch fleet to reach the ‘Spice Islands’ of Maluku.[7]
  • 1599 - 1600: The van Neck expedition returns to Europe. Although eight ships are lost, the expedition makes a 400 per cent profit.[7]


  • 1600: The Portuguese win a major naval battle in the bay of Ambon.[9] Later in the year, the Dutch join forces with the local Hituese in an anti-Portuguese alliance, in return for which the Dutch would have the sole right to purchase spices from Hitu.[9]
  • 1600: Elizabeth I grants a charter to the British East India Company beginning the English advance in Asia.
  • 1602: The Portuguese send a major (and last) expeditionary force from Malacca which succeeded in reimposing a degree of Portuguese control.
  • 1602: The Dutch East India Company (VOC) is established by merging competing Dutch trading companies.[9]
The Dutch and English enclaves at Amboyna (top) and Banda (bottom). 1655 engraving.
The Dutch and English enclaves at Amboyna (top) and Banda (bottom). 1655 engraving.
  • 1602, June: British East India Company's first voyage, commanded by Sir James Lancaster, arrives in Aceh and sails on to Bantam where he is allowed to build trading post which becomes the centre of British trade in Indonesia until 1682.[10]
  • 1603: First permanent Dutch trading post is established in Banten, West Java.[10]
  • 1604: A second English East India Company voyage commanded by Sir Henry Middleton reaches Ternate, Tidore, Ambon and Banda. Fierce VOC hostility is encounter in Banda thus beginning Anglo-Dutch competition for access to spices[10]
  • 1605, February: The VOC in alliance with Hitu prepare to attack a Portuguese fort in Ambon but the Portuguese surrender.[9]
  • 1606: A Spanish fleet occupies Ternate and Tidore.[9]
  • 1610: The VOC establishes the post of Governor General to enable firmer control of their affairs in Asia.[9]
  • 1611-1617: The English establish trading posts at Sukadana (southwest Kalimantan), Makassar, Jayakarta and Jepara in Java, and Aceh, Pariaman and Jambi in (Sumatra) threatening Dutch ambitions for a monopoly on East Indies trade.[10]
  • 1611: The Dutch establish a post at Jayakarta (later 'Batavia' and then 'Jakarta').
  • 1613: The Dutch expel the Portuguese from their Solor fort.
  • 1619: Jan Pieterszoon Coen appointed Governor-General of the VOC who would show he had no scruples about using brute force to establish the VOC on a firm footing.
Dutch Batavia in the 17th Century, built in what is now North Jakarta
Dutch Batavia in the 17th Century, built in what is now North Jakarta
  • 1619, 30 May: Coen, backed by a force of nineteen ships, storms the Jayakarta driving out the Banten forces, and from the ashes of Jayakarta, establishes Batavia as the VOC headquarters.
  • 1620s: Almost the entire native population of Banda Islands was deported, driven away, starved to death or killed in an attempt to replace them with Dutch colonial slave labour.
  • 1620: Diplomatic agreements in Europe commence a three-year period of cooperation between the Dutch and the English over the spice trade.[10]
  • 1623: In a notorious but disputed incident, known as the 'Amboyna massacre', ten English and ten Japanese traders are arrested, tried and beheaded for conspiracy against the Dutch Government.[11] The English quietly withdraw from most of their Indonesian activities (except trading in Bantam) and focus on other Asian interests.
  • 1636: The Portuguese are expelled again from their Solor fort by the Dutch following a reoccupation.
  • 1646: Sultan Agung of Mataram dies - and is buried at his graveyard at Imogiri
  • 1667: As a result of the Treaty of Breda, the Netherlands and England exchange the islands of Run and Manhattan.



  • 1800, 1 January: The bankrupt Dutch East India Company (VOC) is formally dissolved and the nationalised Dutch East Indies is established.
  • 1870: Beginning of a 'Liberal Policy' of deregulated exploitation of the Netherlands East Indies.[12]
  • 1873: The beginning of the bloody Aceh War for Dutch occupation of the province.[12]
  • 1888: Founding of the shipping line Koninklijke Paketvaart Maatschappij (KPM) that supported the unification and development of the colonial economy.[12]
  • 1894: Lombok War[12]
  • 1898: General van Heutz becomes chief of staff of Aceh campaign. Wilhelmina becomes queen of the Netherlands.[12]


Japanese Occupation (1942 - 1945)

Japanese advance through Indonesia, 1942
Japanese advance through Indonesia, 1942

Indonesian National Revolution (1945-1950)


  • 1948 - 1962: Darul Islam rebellions begin in West Java, spread to other provinces but conclude with the execution of its leader Kartosoewiryo.[14]
  • 1950, 6 September: The first cabinet of the unitary state is established. It is led by Prime Minister Mohammad Natsir.[15]
  • 1950, 27 September:Indonesia becomes the 60th member of the United Nations.[15]
  • 1951, 21 March: The Natsir cabinet falls[16]
  • 1951, 26 April: The composition of the new cabinet is announced. The new Prime Minister is Dr. Sukiman Wirjosanjojo.[15]
  • 1952, 25 February: Amid bitter disputes over the signing of a Mutual Security Agreement with the US, the Sukiman cabinet resigns.[16]
  • 1952, 3 April: The new cabinet, led by Prime Minister Wilopo is inaugurated.[15]
  • 1952, 17 October: Army-organized demonstrations take place in Jakarta to demand the dissolution of the legislature. Tank guns and machine guns are trained on the presidential palace.[16].This leads to the suspension ofGeneral Nasution as army chief of staff following army indiscipline over command and support that threatens the government.[14]
  • 1953, 2 June: The Wilopo cabinet resigns.[16]
  • 1953, 2 June: After lengthy negotiations, the composition of the new cabinet is announced. Serving his first term as prime minister is Ali Sastroamidjojo.[16]
  • 1955, March - 1961, August: Regional rebellions in Sumatra and Sulawesi.
  • 1955, 18 - 25 April: The city of Bandung hosts the Asia-Africa Conference. It is the first meeting of the Non-Aligned Movement and is attended by world leaders including China's Zhou Enlai, India's Nehru, Egypt's Nasser and Yugoslavia's Tito.[17]
  • 1955, 24 July: After a dispute with the Army over appointments, the cabinet resigns.[16]
  • 1955, 12 August: Led by Prime Minister Burhanuddin Harahap, the new cabinet is sworn in.[15]
  • 1955, 29 September: Indonesia holds general parliamentary elections;[13] the last free national elections until 1999; support for the parties is widely distributed with four parties each gaining 16-22 per cent and the remaining votes split between 24 parties.[17]
  • 1955, 15 December: Elections are held for the Constitutional Assembly[16]
  • 1956, 3 March: The cabinet falls as a result of its policy toward the Dutch.[16]
  • 1955, 24 March: The second cabinet to be led by Ali Sastroamidjojo takes office.[15]
  • 1956, 3 May: Indonesia unilaterally abrogates the Round Table Agreement signed with the Dutch in 1949.[15]
  • 1956, 1 December: Hatta resigns as vice-president.[15]
  • 1957, 21 February: President Sukarno announces his "Conception" (Konsepsi) of the nature of Indonesia. This will eventually lead to Guided Democracy[15][16]
  • 1957, March&mdash1961, August: Regional rebellions in Sumatra and Sulawesi.[17]
  • 1957, 14 March: Martial Law is proclaimed. On the same day, the cabinet resigns.[16]
  • 1957, 9 April: Sukarno appoints a "Working Cabinet" with Djuanda as prime minister.[15]
  • 1957, 30 November: An attempt is made to assassinate President Sukarno. Grenades are thrown at him as he visits a school in Cikini, Jakarta.[15]
  • 1958, May 18: US Air Force pilot Allen Pope is shot down over Ambon, revealing covert American support of regional rebellions, and ends the Dulles brothers' failure to subvert the Sukarno government.[17]
  • 1959, 5 July: With armed forces support, Sukarno issues a decree dissolving the Constituent Assembly and reintroducing the Constitution of 1945 with strong presidential powers, and assumes the additional role of Prime Minister, which completes the structure of 'Guided Democracy'.[17]
  • 1959, 10 July: President Sukarno appoints a "Working Cabinet" with himself as prime minister.[18]
  • 1950/60s: Military articulation of doctrines dwifungsi and hankamrata: a military role in sociopolitical development as well as security; a requirement that the resources of the people be at the call of the armed forces.[17]


1960, 9 March Second Lieutenant Daniel Alexander Maukar of the Indonesian Air Force uses a MiG-17 fighter to strafe the Presidential Palace in Jakarta, oil taks at Tanjung Priok in North Jakarta and then the Bogor Palace.[15]
  • 1960, 18 February: President Sukarno reshuffles the cabinet and appoints the second "Working Cabinet".[18]
  • 1950, 24 June:The House of Representatives-Mutual cooperation (DPR-GR), composed of members chosen by President Sukarno is established. [15]
  • 1960, 17 August:Indonesia severs diplomatic links with the Netherlands in protest over its refusal to hand over West Papua.[15]
  • 1960, 30 September: President Sukarno addresses the United Nations General Assembly.[15]
  • 1961, March 4: An agreement is signed in Jakarta with the Soviet Union to buy arms with long term loans.[15]
  • 1961, 17 August:Building officially starts on the Monas National Monument in the center of Jakarta.[15]
  • 1962, January 2:The Manadala Command to "free" West Papua from the Dutch is established. Its commander is Brigadier general Suharto.[15]
  • 1962, 15 January: Deputy chief of staff of the Indonesian Navy Commodore Yos Sudarso is killed in a Dutch air attack on the motor torpedo boat (MTB) force he is commanding.[15]
  • 1962, 8 March:President Sukarno again reshuffles his cabinet.[18]
  • 1962, 15 August:The New York Agreement transferring sovereignty of West Papua to Indonesia is signed at the United Nations.[15]
  • 1962, 24 August - 4 September: Indonesia hosts the Fourth Asian Games.[15]
  • 1963, 18 May: Parliament elects Sukarno 'President-for-life'.[17]
  • 1963, 1 May: Following UN and Kennedy government pressure, the Netherlands yields West Irian (Papua) to temporary UN supervision.[17][15]
  • 1963 - 1965: Sole years of American Peace Corps program in Indonesia.[17]
  • 1963, 18 September': Following demonstrations in Jakarta to prptest at the creation of Malaysia, the British Embassy is burned by a mob.[15]
  • 1963, 13 November: President Sukarno conducts the final reshuffle of the "Working Cabinet".[15]
  • 1963 - 1965: Sukarno leads the Konfrontasi campaign against the newly created Malaysia.[13][17]
  • 1964, 27 August: President Sukarno appoints the Dwikora Cabinet
  • 1965, January: Indonesia withdraws from membership of the UN.[17]
  • 1965, 30 September: An abortive coup in Jakarta results in the murder of six army generals, and disposal of bodies at Lubang Buaya.[17]
  • 1965, 1 October: A counter coup led by General Suharto that leads to the Overthrow of Sukarno
  • 1965, October to 1966, March: A violent anti-communist purge leads to the killing of approximately 1/2 million Indonesians.[17]
  • 1966, 11 March: General Suharto forces Sukarno to delegate presidential powers to himself by signing the Supersemar. Suharto proceeds to dissolve the Indonesian Communist Party.[19][17]
  • 1967: New investment laws designed to bring in foreign capital are passed; restrictions are introduced regarding status of Indonesian Chinese, their names and their religions.[17]
  • 1968, March: Parliament confers full presidential title on Suharto; Sukarno is under effective house arrest.[17]
  • 1968 - 1971: Soedjatmoko is Indonesian ambassador to the United States; bilateral relations warm.[17]
  • 1969: Papuan representatives agree to join Indonesia following the controversial 'Act of Free Choice'.[17]



  • 1980, May: The Petition of Fifty—a statement of concern to parliament about the use of government power, propaganda, and presidential personality cult—is begun.[20]
  • 1982 - 1983: The height of Petrus ('mysterious shootings') of thousands of suspected criminals by government security forces.[19][20]
  • 1983: Prabowo Subianto, then a major in ABRI marries Suharto's daughter Titiek at Taman Mini.[20]
  • 1984, 12 September: Muslim concerned protesting over alleged insensitivities to Islam at Tanjung Priok; a riot ensues resulting in many deaths. Clamp down on Islamic political leaders.[19]
  • 1984, December: Abdurrahman Wahid (Gus Dur) is elected chairman of Nahdlatul Ulama a position previously held by both his father and grandfather.[20]
  • 1985: The Indonesian government require all organisations of any kind to adopt Pancasila as their sole basis.[20]
  • 1987: Sukarno's daughter Megawati Sukarnoputri becomes a member of parliament; Suharto prohibits display of images of Sukarno although they appear frequently nonetheless.[21]
  • 1988: Suharto is elected to a fifth term as president.[21]
  • 1989: The Free Aceh Movement (GAM) reemerges following its 1976 founding; suppression of its guerilla activities leads to 2,000 deaths by 1991 in Aceh.[21]


  • 1991: Indonesia wins presidency of the Non-Aligned Movement.[21]
  • 1991, 12 November: ABRI troops fire on demonstrative funeral procession in Dili, East Timor. TV images of the killings put East Timor high on the international human rights agenda.[21]
  • 1992: Suharto successfully defies Dutch efforts to link human rights to aid administerd since 1967 by the International Governmental Group on Indonesia (IGGI).[21]
  • 1992-1993: East Timorese resistance leader Xanana Gusmão is captured by Prabowo and is tried and sentenced.[21]
  • 1993: Suharto seeks a sixth term and is easily re-elected.[21]
  • 1994, June: Suharto shuts down Tempo and two other publications for critical reporting of Habibie’s purchase of the former East German navy.[21]
  • 1996: The Free Papua Movement (OPM) kidnaps fourteen scientists and foresters in Iran Jaya garnering international attention. After four months, the abductees are rescued in a bloody operation lead by Prabowo.[21]
  • 1996, April: Ibu Tien Suharto, the president’s wife of 48 years, dies of a heart attack.[21]
  • 1996, July: Military-backed thugs burst into headquarters of PDI, Megawati's party, and evict her supporters in a violent climax to government efforts to vitiate her party’s popularity.[21]
  • 1997, February: Alarmed at a dukun's prediction that 'the nail of Java has come loose', Suharto commands a massive Ruat Dunia ceremony ('Cleansing of the world') near Borobudur.[21]
  • 1997, June: Pacific Ocean trade winds shift heralding the onset of the El Niño; severe drought across much of Indonesia follows in the ensuing months accompanied by highly destructive forest fires.[21]
  • 1997, July: The collapse of the Thai baht starts the East Asian financial crisis and over the ensuing months Indonesia is the country hardest hit.[21]
  • 1997 - 1998: Severe social unrest breaks out across Indonesian cities against Chinese Indonesians, Christians, symbols of wealth, the police and bureaucracy.[21]
  • 1998, 11 March: Suharto unanimously elected by the MPR to his seventh presidential term.[22]
  • 1998, late March: Largely peaceful student demonstrations against the regime rise to national prominence.[22]
  • 1998, 12 May: Four student demonstrators at Trisakti University are shot dead by bullets unproven but thought likely to have been from army sources.[22]
  • 1998, 13 May: Memorial services for killed students leads to vandalism, arson, looting and rape by roving mobs which continue unchecked by security forces for two days leaving 1,200 dead.[22]
  • 1998, 20 May: For National Awakening Day, Amien Rais pledges to bring a million protestors into the streets to demonstrate against at the National Monument in Jakarta. Faced with barbed wire and massed troops he calls off the rally fearing bloodshed.[22]
  • 1998, 21 May, 9 a.m.: After being deserted by his cabinet, Suharto resigns the presidency. Habibie assumes presidency.[22]
  • 1998, August: General Wiranto announces the discharge of Lieutenant General Prabowo from active duty, with full pension benefits—and without court-martial for allegations of abduction and torture of student activist (some of whom remain missing as of 2003).[22]
  • 1998, 10 November: Megawati, Rais, and the sultan of Yogya, meet at Wahid's home in Ciganjur, and issue a series of statements including a demand for the military to end their role in politics within six years.[22]
  • 1998, 13 November: On the last day of the MPR sessions, soldiers open fire on demonstrating students killing at least fifteen and injuring hundreds.[22]
  • 1999, 19 January: An petty argument between in the city of Ambon triggers Christian-Muslim clashes that last for three years across Maluku. As many as 10,000 are killed and 700,000 or one third of the region are displaced.[22]
  • 1999, 7 June: Indonesia's first free and fair national elections since 1955 take place with almost no disruption and wide participation. Votes however are distributed across forty-eight parties with no party achieving a majority.[22]
  • 1999, September: East Timor votes to secede from Indonesia in a referendum conducted under UN auspices. Four-fifths of voters choose independence for East Timor over integration with Indonesia. Pro-integration militias trained and paid by ABRI immediately resort to a scorched earth policy that leaves 1,000 dead and most of the territory's infrastructure ruined.[22]
  • 1999, 13 September: President Habibie relents to international pressure and allows a UN peacekeeping force known as 'INTERFET' to enter East Timor and restore order.[22]
  • 1999, October: The Indonesian parliament rejects President Habibie's accountability speech. Wahid who's party received one eighth of the popular vote is elected president by the MPR. Megawati who's party received one third of the vote (the highest) is elected vice president.[23]


  • 2000, Christmas Eve: In a coordinated attack involving more than three dozen sites across the country, churches are bombed and eighteen people killed. It is later proven to have been planned by Jemaah Islamiyah in retaliation for Christian killings of Muslims in the Maluku conflict.[23]
  • 2001 - Ethnic violence in Kalimantan as indigenous Dayaks force out Madurese transmigrants. Mass political demonstrations by Wahid's supporters and opponents. IMF stops further loans citing lack of progress in tackling corruption.[24]
  • 2000 - 2001: President Wahid's administration is marred by failures to stabilise the economy, patterns of political favouritism, economic corruption (although Wahid himself is not accused of corruption), inability to reform the military, personal eccentricity and pettiness, ineffectiveness in dealing with major religious violence in Maluku and Sulawesi, major ethnic violence (Dayaks vs. Madurese) in Kalimantan, and separatisms in Aceh and Irian Jaya.[23]
  • 2001, July: President Wahid is impeached chiefly on grounds of incompetence. The parliament elects Megawati president by 592 votes to 0. Hamzah Haz defeats Akbar Tandjung and Lieutenant General (ret.) Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono.[23]
  • 2001, September: President Megawati visits President George Bush a week after the 9/11 terrorist attacks and welcomes American investment. On her return to Indonesia, the Islamic right criticises her cooperation with America's war in Afghanistan, and the nationalist left criticises here for being too suppliant to foreign investors.[23]
  • 2002: Nahdlatul Ulama and Muhammadiyah, the largest Muslim organisations in Indonesia, issue joint statements critical of militant Islamists.[23]
  • 2002, February: Peace talks in Maliano, South Sulawesi appear to end three years of Christian-Muslim violence in Maluku and Poso.[23]
  • 2002, July: Tommy Suharto is sentenced to fifteen years jail for illegal possession of arms, contempt of law, and masterminding the assassination of a Supreme Court judge who had convicted him for graft.[23]
  • 2002, September: House Speaker Akbar Tandjung is sentenced to three years jail for corruption.[23]
  • 2002, October 12: Bombs in the Kuta nightclub district in Bali kill 202 people the world's deadliest terrorist attack since 11 September, 2001. Indonesian police, aided by ten nations, track down Jemaah Islamiyah operatives.[23]
  • 2002, November: Eurico Gutteres is sentenced to ten years prison for crimes committed following the 1999 ballot in East Timor.[23]
  • 2002, December: The Indonesian government and GAM sign a peace accord aimed at ending decades of violence in Aceh. The deal breaks down the following year.[23]
  • 2003, August: Jemaah Islamiyah bomb Jakarta's Marriott hotel killing twelve. All but one of those killed are Indonesians.
  • 2004, April: Parliamentary and local elections: Golkar party of former President Suharto wins greatest share of vote, with Megawati Sukarnoputri's PDI-P coming second.[24]
  • 2004, October: Indonesia's first direct presidential election elects Bambang Yudhoyono following popular disillusionment with incumbent Megawati.
  • 2004, 9 September: A bomb blast outside the Australian embassy in Jakarta kills 11 and injures up to 100 people.
  • 2004, 26 December: An earthquake-triggered tsunami kills an estimated 160,000 and causes widespread devastation.
  • 2005: Bombings in Bali kill 20 people.
  • 2005: Government and Free Aceh Movement separatists sign a peace deal providing for rebel disarmament and the withdrawal of government soldiers from the province. Rebels begin handing in weapons in September; government completes troop pull-out in December.[24]
  • 2006, May: A powerful earthquake kills thousands of people in the Yogyakarta region in central Java.[24]
  • 2007: Adam Air Flight 574 crashes into the sea off Sulawesi, killing all 102 onboard.


General references

  • Feith, Herbert (2007) The Decline of Constitutional Democracy in Indonesia Equinox Publishing (Asia) Pte Ltd, ISBN 979-3870-45-2
  • Friend, Theodore (2003). Indonesian Destinies. The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. ISBN0-674-01834-6.
  • Ricklefs, M.C. 2001. A history of modern Indonesia since c.1200. Stanford: Stanford University Press. ISBN 0-8047-4480-7
  • Sekretariat Negara Republik Indonesia (1975a) 30 Tahun Indonesia Merdeka: Jilid 2 (1950-1964) (30 Years of Indonesian Independence: Volume 2 (1950-1964)
  • Sekretariat Negara Republik Indonesia (1975b) 30 Tahun Indonesia Merdeka: Jilid 3 (1965-1973) (30 Years of Indonesian Independence: Volume 3 (1965-1973)
  • Simanjuntak, P.H.H (2003) Kabinet-Kabinet Republik Indonesia: Dari Awal Kemerdekaan Sampai Reformasi (Cabinets of the Republic of Indonesia: From the Start of Independence to the Reform era, Penerbit Djambatan, Jakarta, ISBN 979-428-499-8
  • Vickers, Adrian (2005). A History of Modern Indonesia. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-54262-6.